This chapter forms the substantive core of the Toolkit and contains twenty-nine tools which can be useful to promote transparency and good governance at the local level. The tools are organized according to the strategy framework introduced in Chapter 1. As mentioned earlier, the five strategies – Assessment and Monitoring; Access to Information; Ethics and Integrity; Institutional Reforms; and Targeting Specific Issues – represent different entry points to introduce and build transparency in local governance. In reality, they are often used in tandem for best results.
A. Assessment and monitoring: This strategy focuses on understanding the types and scale of corruption and the degree of transparency in local governance, while creating a base-line against which progress in improving transparency can be measured. It is also valuable for increasing public awareness and mobilising a constituency committed to tackling corruption .
C. Ethics and integrity: This approach is based on the conviction that ethical behaviour amongst all stakeholders can go a long way in building transparency and enhancing inclusiveness in cities. It includes tools for clarifying what is expected from various actors and stakeholders in local governance.
E. Targeting specific issues to build transparency: Specific issues such as land, water, housing, education, social services, health services, waste management, tax collection and management etc., which are important in terms of local development, often serve as rallying points for positive changes in local governance. These same issues can also be vulnerable to corruption. This section, however, is not elaborated in this first edition of the Toolkit. The Toolkit will work to expand its focus on specific issues in future editions, building on the collective experience of governance stakeholders.
Each tool in this chapter has been presented in the following format:
Introduction or overview of the tool
Purpose of the tool
Linkage to Transparency
How it works – The key elements for operationalising the tool
Examples of its application
A large number of tools were reviewed for inclusion in this chapter. In the end, however, a key criterion for selection of the tools was their effectiveness. Tools that have not been tested or have not proved effective are thus not included in this edition of the Toolkit.